3.1. Main details
Name: Edinburgh Napier University
Country of Registration: Scotland
CAA Operator ID: GBR-OP-5H57G5DHWW9P
ENU is insured by U.M. Association Limited (Policy number: UM176/17).
ENU operates the RPAs described on the UAS page
3.2 Structure of Edinburgh Napier University (Computational Sustainability Lab)
Edinburgh Napier University is a publicly-funded higher education institution providing a full range of degree qualifications and undertaking funded research. The School of Computing, Engineering and the Built Environment (SCEBE) is responsible for UAS operations. SCEBE’s physical location is the University’s Merchiston Campus.
The chart below shows the relevant structures and lines of responsibility
3.3 Nominated Personnel
Permanent personnel are named in the table below. Other crew are recruited on an ad-hoc basis for specific missions. They are fully briefed on the contents of this operations manual in advance of live operations.
|Name||Flyer ID||Role||NQE/RAE Issued Certificates||Acceptable Means of Compliance (if applicable)|
|Brian Davison||GBR-RP-LDP6DZ4QDVWV||Accountable manager
|John Currie||GBR-RP-SLDYF5BH9QPQ||Remote pilot||COP-SU||N/A|
Where possible, a remote pilot will be accompanied by an observer. If an observer is not assigned to a mission, then the remote pilot will adopt the observer's responsibilities as detailed below.
- Supervise the UAS operation
- Plan each flight in advance and ensure the right resources are available when required
- Complete the pre-flight risk assessment and mitigate any risks where possible
- Have confidence that the flight can be conducted safely and the competence to perform that flight
- Ensure that the aircraft used is airworthy by completing the pre-flight checklist
- Brief all crew members prior to a flight to ensure they understand their responsibilities
- Communicate with collaborators and other stakeholders as required to understand the required task
- Ensure that the welfare of themselves or others is not compromised by any planned operations
- Operate the aircraft within the stated limitations for that aircraft
- Ensure that he or she is of sound body and mind to operate the aircraft
- Complete all required paperwork such as pilot & aircraft hours, battery log etc. after a flight
- Act as a link between the remote pilot and other crew members
- Ensure the remote pilot is aware of all relevant developing situations
- Maintain constant look out for ground and air incursions
- Ensure the position of the UA is always known
- Keep the remote pilot updated with battery status
- Be prepared to activate the ‘failsafe’ function on the aircraft when required
- Brief the pilot after a flight using threat and error management techniques to help the pilot improve his or her competency
- Ensure the camera or sensor is operational (fully charged, empty memory card fitted, lens clean)
- Ensure the camera or sensor is securely mounted (the remote pilot must confirm this also)
- Ensure the camera or sensor is switched on and operating correctly before activation of the aircraft
- Ensure the camera or sensor is switched off and images saved after the aircraft is made safe
- Ensure operational safety: it is every crew member’s responsibility to alert the observer to any changing situation which may cause threat to any aircraft, property, or person present
- Ensure the camera or sensor is rotated to the stored position for take-off and landing procedures
3.5 Areas of Operation
Operations will be carried out in UK airspace, mainly within class G airspace but also potentially including class D airspace.
3.6 Types of Operation
The anticipated types of operation are:
- Aerial surveys with visual light cameras and other sensors
- Implementation of a mobile network node for ad-hoc communications
- Inspection of remote locations and facilities
- Aerial photography and videography as required for research and teaching purposes
- Experimentation in intelligent control of autonomous vehicles
Operations that are conducted during daylight will be within standard VLOS limitations of 400 ft above surface level and at a maximum distance from the remote pilot of 500 metres provided the remote pilot can see the RPA in good visual meteorological conditions.
Prior to all night-time operations (where night-time is defined as the time from half an hour after sunset until half an hour before sunrise, sunset and sunrise being determined at surface level), a daylight reconnaissance and site safety assessment including aircraft flight-paths within the surrounding area, shall be undertaken to identify, address and record any hazards, restrictions and obstacles. The launch site shall be provided with adequate illumination and the aircraft shall be equipped with adequate lighting. Flights shall only commence when the weather conditions and visibility of the RPA are suitable for continuous VLOS operations.
3.7 Supervision of UAS Operations
The remote pilot present during each operation will be responsible for the supervision and safe conduct of that operation.
The remote pilot will seek clearance from the accountable manager in advance of a flight where a risk is identified as not being in the low or moderate categories and cannot be easily mitigated.
An observer, if present, will be charged with pointing out to the remote pilot any unobserved threat or risk that manifests itself during a flight using threat and error management techniques.
Any safety issue that arises will be brought to the attention of the accountable manager as soon as practicable after the incident has been recorded.
3.8 Accident Prevention and Flight Safety Programme
ENU will comply with the requirements of CAP382, Mandatory Occurrence Reporting.
In the event of any occurrence, the severity will first be assessed, and reported as shown in the flowchart below.
The definitions in this section are from Regulation (EU) 376/2014 and Regulation (EU) 996/2010.
Any safety-related event which endangers or which, if not corrected or addressed, could endanger an aircraft, its occupants or any other person and includes an accident or serious incident. Accidents and serious incidents are classifications of occurrence
An occurrence associated with the operation of an aircraft which, in the case of a manned aircraft, takes place between the time any person boards the aircraft with the intention of flight until such time as all such persons have disembarked, or in the case of an unmanned aircraft, takes place between the time the aircraft is ready to move with the purpose of flight until such time it comes to rest at the end of the flight and the primary propulsion system is shut down, in which:
a person is fatally or seriously injured as a result of:
being in the aircraft, or
direct contact with any part of the aircraft, including parts which have become detached from the aircraft, or,
direct exposure to jet blast, except when the injuries are from natural causes, self-inflicted or inflicted by other persons, or when the injuries are to stowaways hiding outside the areas normally available to the passengers and crew; or
the aircraft sustains damage or structural failure which adversely affects the structural strength, performance or flight characteristics of the aircraft, and would normally require major repair or replacement of the affected component, except for engine failure or damage, when the damage is limited to a single engine, (including its cowlings or accessories), to propellers, wing tips, antennas, probes, vanes, tires, brakes, wheels, fairings, panels, landing gear doors, windscreens, the aircraft skin (such as small dents or puncture holes) or minor damages to main rotor blades, tail rotor blades, landing gear, and those resulting from hail or bird strike, (including holes in the radome); or
the aircraft is missing or is completely inaccessible.
An incident involving circumstances indicating that there was a high probability of an accident and is associated with the operation of an aircraft, which in the case of a manned aircraft, takes place between the time any person boards the aircraft with the intention of flight until such time as all such persons have disembarked, or in the case of an unmanned aircraft, takes place between the time the aircraft is ready to move with the purpose of flight until such time it comes to rest at the end of the flight and the primary propulsion system is shut down.
An injury which is sustained by a person in an accident and which results in his or her death within 30 days of the date of the accident.
An injury which is sustained by a person in an accident and which involves one of the following:
- hospitalisation for more than 48 hours, commencing within 7 days from the date the injury was received.
- a fracture of any bone (except simple fractures of fingers, toes, or nose);
- lacerations which cause severe haemorrhage, nerve, muscle or tendon damage; d. injury to any internal organ.
- second- or third-degree burns, or any burns affecting more than 5 % of the body surface;
- verified exposure to infectious substances or harmful radiation.
The following workflow will be used to determine reporting requirements in the Specific Category under PDRA-01:
The ECCAIRS Central Hub should be used to report incidents to both the AAIB and CAA.
All incidents will be logged in the aircraft operating hours log as well as the ENU Incident Log. Upon noting a minor incident, the logbook should be checked for similar occurrences. If a minor incident occurs three times, then an investigation should be initiated to identify the cause and consider implementing steps to reduce the likelihood of this incident occurring again.
All accidents and serious incidents require an investigation as outlined in the investigation procedure section. The incident log should also be updated.
Investigation Procedure and Report
Any investigations undertaken by ENU will follow the procedure shown below to generate an investigation report with the following contents:
The introduction contains the context for the Incident and confirms the major facts as to the companies and people involved, why they were present and the reason for the flights being carried out.
DESCRIPTION OF EVENTS
This is a factual account of the events leading up to and immediately after the incident as well as the incident itself. Its aim is to provide an agreed basis upon which the analysis is carried out.
Importantly any assumptions should be clearly stated, and all data provided should have its authenticity and derivation stated. If there are doubts, then these should also be clearly articulated so that future analysis can take this into account.
The analysis of events sets out to find explanations for what is described in the description of events. Wherever possible the analysis draws upon known concepts, models, and physical understanding to ensure that the events as described have a logical explanation.
The analysis should set the scene for any conclusions and provide traceability from the facts to the conclusions in a logical and auditable way.
The conclusions are derived from the analysis, which themselves are based upon the facts in the description of events or the facts as they pertain to concepts, models and physical understanding exposed within the analysis. A strong conclusion is one where this traceability is good and can stand up to scrutiny.
The aim of a recommendation is to provide the organisations or personnel identified for the report with those items and actions that can lead to a safer operation and which address the shortcomings highlighted through the investigation process.
3.9 Flight Team Composition
The flight team will be designed around the requirements of the mission. In simple cases such as the conduct of aerial surveys in rural locations that are well away from buildings, people and livestock, the remote pilot may operate alone. It should be noted, however, that the inclusion of an observer is preferred where possible.
In more complex situations, such as urban or industrial locations, the crew will include sufficient members to ensure the safety of the crew themselves as well as uninvolved persons nearby. The crew composition will be detailed in the mission plan.
3.10 Operation of Multiple Types of UAS
The remote pilot will ensure they are fully competent with the operating limitations associated with the aircraft class, weight, and manufacturer they intend to operate with – especially when multiple aircraft are used.
The UAS operated by ENU are listed on the UAS page
3.11 Qualification Requirements
ENU will ensure that all its remote pilots hold a UAS pilot competency assessment or qualification recognised by the CAA and compliant with the category they intend to operate within.
All remote pilots intending to operate within the open category must ensure they comply with the relevant qualification requirements. For example, they must have completed the DMARES assessment and hold a valid Flyer ID.
All remote pilots intending to operate within the specific category must ensure they hold the relevant qualification requirements for the intended PDRA, in the case of UKPDRA-01, a GVC is required.
3.12 Crew Health
All remote pilots and other crew members working on behalf of ENU will be introduced to the IMSAFE mnemonic and will be trained to use it as a proactive self-assessment tool.
The IMSAFE mnemonic helps to remember six factors that could impair a crew member's ability to carry out their responsibilities safely.
It is the responsibility of the individual to determine if they are in a physically and mentally fit condition to participate in operations on behalf of ENU.
All crew members must be capable of clearly reading a vehicle registration number plate from twenty metres.
Crew members shall not attend a flight operation if they are under the influence of alcohol.
ENU also has a strict no drugs policy. All flight crew members taking prescription drugs should seek professional guidance and advise the remote pilot.
Any crew member who begins to feel unwell and is unable to continue with their assigned responsibilities should advise the remote pilot immediately.
3.13 Logs and Records
ENU will maintain up-to-date information and operational logbooks for:
- Aircraft and Pilot Operating Hours
- Battery Charge
- Aircraft Maintenance
- Incidents / Accidents
ENU maintains a subscription with AirData.com which allows flight data to be uploaded directly and automatically from DJI UAS. AirData provides a compliant logging service for pilots, UAS, flights and batteries.
3.14 Operator Training Programmes
All remote pilots working on behalf of ENU will be subject to regular assessment by the accountable manager on a regular basis for competency and currency, with emphasis on emergency procedures and non-GPS assisted flight manoeuvres.
To maintain currency, the remote pilot should have completed a minimum 2 hours flight time in the previous 90 days.
3.15 Operational Authorisation
A copy of operational authorisation 20221230 issued to ENU by the CAA can be found here.